Metrology is the science of measurement. It includes units of measurement and their standards, measuring instruments and their field of application, and all theoretical and practical aspects relating to measurement. The world economy now depends on reliable measurements and tests.
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It shall be reliable and acceptable on the international level, and measurements and tests may not constitute any technical impediments or barriers before world trade. To reach this, the suitable infrastructure shall be provided in the field of metrology as a prerequisite for achievement of the same.
The purpose for provision of suitable infrastructure in the field of metrology is to guarantee validity of measurements carried out on the level of each country and to promote reliability of the inspection and test results and pave the way to mutual international recognition.
Availability of suitable infrastructure in the field of metrology can contribute to remove the technical barriers and smooth inter-trade among countries. It can also protect health and safety of society in way that can be positively reflected on the prosperity and standard of living.
Importance of Measures
Metrology plays a key role in Scientific progress, industrial and technological development.The basis of any scientific or industrial development is metrology without which most industrial operations, their means of observation and quality of control cannot be controlled and control of its outputs depends on measurement.
Design and effectiveness of manufacturing of products that satisfy market needs.
Quality of products or services is measured by their satisfaction of market needs and requirements. Therefore, we can’t judge the outputs of design of any products or services without use of reliable means.
Investigation of the cases of product nonconformity and prevention
Control of outputs from industrial operations may result in products that don’t satisfy market requirements. To analyze direct reasons for inconvenience of outputs and application of corrective measures to avoid repetition, it certainly requires measurement operations with high credibility to help investigate the direct reason and prevent its repetition.
Most commercial transactions are based on measurement to indicate the quantity, volume or quality of products or service subject to the commercial exchange. The trader usually buys wheat for certain price per kilogram or ton at certain humidity degree. Wood trader exports wood plates at certain price per cubic meter. Who can guarantee for traders to receive the ordered and paid for quantity, or the proper measure of cubic meters of woods.
Having reliable national metrology system can protect traders and ensures receipt of proper quantities and measurements, in addition to general protection of national economy.
For the Investor:
When investor considers investment in any country, he considers the infrastructure of this country, including roads, means of telecommunication and others. Infrastructure of the quality of products and services that will be provided by the investor to the market is a key element for the success of investment.
The quality of products and services that will be provided by the investor to its customers requires key elements, the first of which is to have metrology system that can guarantee reliability of measurement results that will be carried out for assurance of the quality of products and services provided to customers.
In the field of health:
The rapid scientific and technological developments in the field of innovation of diagnosis systems and medical treatment created urgent need and demand for all countries to develop their infrastructure in the field of metrology to serves the medical sector to satisfy the growing needs for highly reliable and credible systems for inspection, tests, diagnosis and treatment. Access to the above requires approved standards of measurement and traceability data that supports safety and effectiveness of medical appliances used during phases of diagnosis and treatment. BIPM provides the services of comparison and calibration in the field of radiology to national measures institutes all over the world, in addition to WHO and IAEA. These services help support accurate and effective diagnosis of treatment for about seven million patients who are subject to radiological treatment per annum, in addition to 33 million cases that will be diagnosed by nuclear medicine, and above (360) million cases to be diagnosed by X-Ray. In addition, we will control observing about (11) million persons who work on rays to prevent them against overdoses of rays.
In the field of safety:
Our safety depends on the measures personnel proficiency of their works. In fact, the accurate measurements that can be applied and that are internationally acceptable have become necessary in our modern world. To reach this end and to build the capacities that can carry out accurate and reliable measurements, there shall be national measurement system that depends on national measurement standards with highly technical properties through which the measurement units can be disseminated to the remaining instruments and tools of measurement in way that ensures performance of accurate and compatible measurements with international practices.
In the field of environment:
The importance of environment lies in the importance of our presence in the best condition. Any change to the environment will affect all of us. It is believed that the current activities of man may negatively impact environment. Therefore, we are in need, more than any time before to measures in our environment to help us report the environmental changes and define their future impacts on the living organisms.
Types of Metrology
There are three Types fields of metrology:
Scientific Metrology : The activity related to research in the following fields of metrology (measurement units, measurement standards, measurement methods, measurement tools) and work on their development.
Industrial Metrology : The activity related to guarantee of validity of results of the measurement tools used in industrial operations including production, section and control.
Legal Metrology : The activity related to mandatory legal requirements of metrology, metrology units, metrology tools and metrology methods to supervise execution and practice by the appropriate government authority.
The last type of metrology, legal metrology, is the key tool for control and protection of markets, as this activity is usually practiced by government authorities that impose on metrology tools applied in the commercial transactions or those that may affect the safety and health of community members.
These requirements aim at reaching the reliability of the results of the measurement tools subject to such requirements, provided that (weights and scales used in commercial transactions, fuel packing pumps, medical blood pressure measurement systems, medical thermometers, … etc.).